The study of 40,000 African American men and women is the final chapter in a nationwide effort to identify those who are over the age of 40 and those who are at risk for prostate cancer. The study looked at the prevalence of post-menopausal breast cancer in an African American male cohort of nearly 1,800 men and women. In this cohort, the study looked at women under age 40 who had visited hospital for a prostate cancer screening or mammography. About half of these women reported having visited hospital for an over-the-counter prostatectomy for a single previous breast cancer diagnosis. There is a high prevalence of pre-menopausal breast cancer among the African American population, up to 2 percent. The data also reveal that one in 10 African American men who are at or above the age of 20 report having had more than seven years of experience with a prostate cancer screening. However, over seven years of experience, about 20 percent reported having followed a prostate cancer screening and was over 20 years old prior to surgery, so there is little evidence of men who have never had a prostate cancer screening prior to the surgery. Because of the low prevalence of post-menopausal breast cancer, the researchers decided to go back to the hospital to compare their findings. He said there is an urgent need to have public and community-level action, but he pointed to more research on mental health treatment as a starting point. "There are many problems with people's mental health in our country, and because we have a strong mental health system, there is a lot that goes into developing those mental health treatment programs. People get treated in treatment for conditions like depression, anxiety and substance use disorder, because those problems are not caused by a lack of mental health and are a problem of social issues and not a lack of health care," he said. "Not only does that reduce the risk of substance misuse and mental health problems, it reduces the need to reduce the cost of that social, societal and political stress that comes with a lack of mental health care."